Glossary

AC Exterior

A sanded plywood panel with a-grade face, c-grade back and c-grade inner plies bonded with exterior glue.

Air Dried

Seasoned by exposure to the atmosphere, in the open or under cover, without artificial heat.

And Better

This designation, usually abbreviated “&Btr”, indicates that lumber so graded contains an unspecified percentage of pieces that are of a higher grade than the lowest acceptable grade. Thus, Std&Btr will contain some pieces of the Standard grade, and some that are of higher grades, such as Construction. The proportionate distribution of grades is not guaranteed unless a maximum percentage of the lower grade is specified in the purchase order.

Back Veneer

The veneer sheet on the underside of a plywood panel, corresponding in thickness, and often in species, to the face veneer on the upper or exposed surface. Its grain runs parallel to the grain of the core, and crosswise to the grain of the cross-banding.

Beaded

A piece of lumber decorated with a raised half-circle bead along its length.

Bird’s Eye

A decorative feature common in hard maple, and to a lesser extent in a few other species. The figure is due to small conical depressions in the outer annual rings, so that the later growth follows the same contour probably for many years. Rotary veneer cuts the depressions crosswise, and shows a series of circlets called bird’s eyes.

Blending Pin Knot (Inconspicuous)

Sound knots 1/4 inch or less that do not contain dark centers. Inconspicuous or blending pin knots are hardly detectable at a distance of approximately 6’ and do not seriously detract from the overall appearance of the panel. These are permitted in all grades.

Blister

This veneer has the effect of being blistered due to uneven contour of the annual rings. Usually cut rotary or half-round.

Book Matching

A term used in veneering when adjacent sheets from a flitch are opened like opening a book. The back of one sheet is matched with the face of the next sheet. This gives a light and dark effect due to the light reflecting from the fibers which slant in opposite directions. This may yield color variations in some species which may be minimized by proper finishing techniques.

Broken Stripe

This is a modification of ribbon stripe. The markings taper out, due to the twisted grain, so that the ribbon stripe is not continuous, and is short or broken.

Burl Veneer

Produced from a large, wart like growth on the trunk of the tree. The grain pattern typically resembles a series of eyes laid side by side. The appearance is highly decorative.

Butt Matching

The veneer sheet on the underside of a plywood panel, corresponding in thickness, and often in species, to the face veneer on the upper or exposed surface. Its grain runs parallel to the grain of the core, and crosswise to the grain of the cross-banding.

Casing

Trim applied around the tops and sides of windows and doors.

Cathedral

A grain appearance characterized by a series of stacked “V” and inverted “V”. This pattern is common in plain-sliced (flat-cut) veneer.

CD Exterior (CDX)

A grade of plywood; the standard grade of plywood sheathing. The “CD” represents the grades of veneer used for the face and back, respectively. The “X” signifies that an exterior-type glue has been used. However, despite the exterior glue, CDX plywood is classified as an interior type plywood and is intended to withstand only incidental exposure to weather.

Ceiling

A piece of patterned, tongued and grooved lumber, used to cover the ceiling of a room in older houses.

Center Matching

Each panel face is made with an even number of flitch sheets with a center line appearing at the midpoint of the panel and an equal number of veneer sheets on each side of the center line. The number of leaves on the face is always even, but the widths are not necessarily the same.

Checks

Small slits running parallel to the grain of wood, caused chiefly by strains produced in seasoning.

Clear

Free or practically free of all blemishes, characteristics, or defects. A select grade of lumber.

Clear Heart

The highest grade of Redwood. Finish, paneling and ceiling of this grade are often used for interior and exterior trim and cabinetwork, where finest appearance is important.

Construction Heart

A grade of Redwood consisting of all heartwood. Because of its high resistance to decay and insects, this grade is often used in applications where the wood will be exposed to the elements.

Crook

Deviation edgewise from a straight line from end to end of a piece of lumber, measured at the point of the greatest distance from the straight line.

Cross Breaks

A separation of wood cells across the grain. Such breaks may be due to internal strains resulting from unequal longitudinal shrinkage or to external forces.

Cross Fire

Figures extending across the grain such as mottle and fiddle back are often called cross figure or cross fire. A pronounced cross fire adds greatly to the beauty of the veneer.

Crotch Veneer

This is produced from the portion of the tree just below the point where it forks into two limbs. The grain is twisted, thus creating a variety of flame figures. The pattern often resembles a well-formed feather. The outside of the block produces a swirl figure that changes to full crotch flame figure as the cutting approaches the center of the block. Especially valuable in Mahogany.

Crown

1. The upper part of a tree. 2. A term denoting government ownership or control in Canada, as in “Crown Timber.” 3. A slight camber on a horizontal member; such members are placed so the crown is on top.

Cup

Deviation flatwise from a straight line across the width of a piece of lumber, measured at the point of greatest distance from the line.

Curly Grain

Ornamental figure in wood due to the fibers forming irregular curves or undulations. Large undulations produce “wavy” grain.

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