AC Exterior

A sanded plywood panel with a-grade face, c-grade back and c-grade inner plies bonded with exterior glue.

Air Dried

Seasoned by exposure to the atmosphere, in the open or under cover, without artificial heat.

And Better

This designation, usually abbreviated “&Btr”, indicates that lumber so graded contains an unspecified percentage of pieces that are of a higher grade than the lowest acceptable grade. Thus, Std&Btr will contain some pieces of the Standard grade, and some that are of higher grades, such as Construction. The proportionate distribution of grades is not guaranteed unless a maximum percentage of the lower grade is specified in the purchase order.

Back Veneer

The veneer sheet on the underside of a plywood panel, corresponding in thickness, and often in species, to the face veneer on the upper or exposed surface. Its grain runs parallel to the grain of the core, and crosswise to the grain of the cross-banding.


 A piece of lumber decorated with a raised half-circle bead along its length.

Bird’s Eye

A decorative feature common in hard maple, and to a lesser extent in a few other species. The figure is due to small conical depressions in the outer annual rings, so that the later growth follows the same contour probably for many years. Rotary veneer cuts the depressions crosswise, and shows a series of circlets called bird’s eyes.

Blending Pin Knot (Inconspicuous)

Sound knots 1/4 inch or less that do not contain dark centers. Inconspicuous or blending pin knots are hardly detectable at a distance of approximately 6′ and do not seriously detract from the overall appearance of the panel. These are permitted in all grades.


This veneer has the effect of being blistered due to uneven contour of the annual rings. Usually cut rotary or half-round.

Book Matching

A term used in veneering when adjacent sheets from a flitch are opened like opening a book. The back of one sheet is matched with the face of the next sheet. This gives a light and dark effect due to the light reflecting from the fibers which slant in opposite directions. This may yield color variations in some species which may be minimized by proper finishing techniques.

Broken Stripe

This is a modification of ribbon stripe. The markings taper out, due to the twisted grain, so that the ribbon stripe is not continuous, and is short or broken.

Burl Veneer

Produced from a large, wart like growth on the trunk of the tree. The grain pattern typically resembles a series of eyes laid side by side. The appearance is highly decorative.

Butt Matching

The veneer sheet on the underside of a plywood panel, corresponding in thickness, and often in species, to the face veneer on the upper or exposed surface. Its grain runs parallel to the grain of the core, and crosswise to the grain of the cross-banding.


Trim applied around the tops and sides of windows and doors.


A grain appearance characterized by a series of stacked “V” and inverted “V”. This pattern is common in plain-sliced (flat-cut) veneer.

CD Exterior (CDX)

A grade of plywood; the standard grade of plywood sheathing. The “CD” represents the grades of veneer used for the face and back, respectively. The “X” signifies that an exterior-type glue has been used. However, despite the exterior glue, CDX plywood is classified as an interior type plywood and is intended to withstand only incidental exposure to weather.


A piece of patterned, tongued and grooved lumber, used to cover the ceiling of a room in older houses.

Center Matching

Each panel face is made with an even number of flitch sheets with a center line appearing at the midpoint of the panel and an equal number of veneer sheets on each side of the center line. The number of leaves on the face is always even, but the widths are not necessarily the same.


Small slits running parallel to the grain of wood, caused chiefly by strains produced in seasoning.


Free or practically free of all blemishes, characteristics, or defects. A select grade of lumber.

Clear Heart

The highest grade of Redwood. Finish, paneling and ceiling of this grade are often used for interior and exterior trim and cabinetwork, where finest appearance is important.

Construction Heart

A grade of Redwood consisting of all heartwood. Because of its high resistance to decay and insects, this grade is often used in applications where the wood will be exposed to the elements.


Deviation edgewise from a straight line from end to end of a piece of lumber, measured at the point of the greatest distance from the straight line.

Cross Breaks

A separation of wood cells across the grain. Such breaks may be due to internal strains resulting from unequal longitudinal shrinkage or to external forces.

Cross Fire

Figures extending across the grain such as mottle and fiddle back are often called cross figure or cross fire. A pronounced cross fire adds greatly to the beauty of the veneer.

Crotch Veneer

This is produced from the portion of the tree just below the point where it forks into two limbs. The grain is twisted, thus creating a variety of flame figures. The pattern often resembles a well-formed feather. The outside of the block produces a swirl figure that changes to full crotch flame figure as the cutting approaches the center of the block. Especially valuable in Mahogany.


1. The upper part of a tree. 2. A term denoting government ownership or control in Canada, as in “Crown Timber.” 3. A slight camber on a horizontal member; such members are placed so the crown is on top.


Deviation flatwise from a straight line across the width of a piece of lumber, measured at the point of greatest distance from the line.

Curly Grain

Ornamental figure in wood due to the fibers forming irregular curves or undulations. Large undulations produce “wavy” grain.


1. A groove cut into one piece to accommodate another piece. A dado is three-sided and cut into a board, usually across the grain, as opposed to a rabbet, which has two sides and is at the edge of the board. 2. Part of a column, between the base and the cap or cornice. 3. The lower part of an interior wall.

Defect, Open

Open joints, knotholes, cracks, loose knots, wormholes, gaps, voids, or other openings interrupting the smooth continuity of the wood surface.


The separation of the layers of veneer in a plywood panel at the glueline, usually caused by moisture, mismanufacture, or defective glue.


A reference to the specific gravity of wood. Lumber classified as “Dense” has six or more annual rings per inch, plus one-third or more summerwood, measured at either end. Pieces averaging less than six rings per inch also qualify if the rings average one-half or more summerwood.

Diamond Cut

This is usually done with straight grain veneer. If a rectangle is divided into 4 quadrants the veneers match at an angle to the quadrant line, and the grain forms a “V” at these lines. The result is a diamond shape formed by the grain directions.


Any change in the normal color of wood. It may be due to fungi or chemical action. In softwoods abnormal color, except “blueing” usually denotes decay.

Double-End Trimmed (DET)

Passed through saws to be smoothly trimmed at both ends, commonly in length increments of two feet.


Seasoned, usually to a moisture content of less than 19%.

Dry Kiln

A chamber in which wood products are seasoned by applying heat and withdrawing moist air.

Edge Grain

1. Vertical grain; wood cut so that the wide surfaces are approximately at right angles to the growth rings. 2. The grain produced on quarter-sawn wood. 3. Veneer cut within 45 degrees of the radius of the log and across the growth rings.

End Matched

Lumber that has been matched with a tongue at one end and a groove at the other to provide a tight end-to-end fit between pieces.


The better side of a prepared piece of wood. Also, veneer spliced to a certain pattern and cut to exact size.

Fancy Butt

A shingle with the butt end machined in some pattern. Fancy butt shingles are usually used on sidewalls to form geometric designs in the shingle pattern.


Ripple. An undulating appearance of a smooth surface. Fine wavy grain common to sycamore, mahogany and maple, but occurs sometimes in other woods.


The pattern produced in a wood surface by annual growth rings, knots, deviations from natural grain such as interlocked and wavy grain, and irregular coloration. Appears across the grain.


A method of joining two pieces of lumber end-to-end by sawing into the end of each piece a set of projecting “fingers” that interlock. When the pieces are pushed together, these form a strong glue joint.

Fire Retardant

1. A chemical applied to lumber or other wood product to slow combustion and flame spread. 2. A chemical used to fight forest fires, often by dropping it from an airplane or helicopter.


Flake figure is developed only in those species which have very medullary ray growth, specifically Oak, Lacewood, and Sycamore. When the knife cuts directly on or near to the radial, it is close to parallel with medullary ray and therefore develops the “Flake” effect.

Flat Cut

The most common method of veneer manufacturing, producing a grain pattern known as cathedral. Each leaf in the flitch is similar, therefore a consistent and even matching pattern is possible. Flat cut veneer is ideally suited for wall panels and furniture.

Flat Grain (FG)

Annual rings (grain) that form an angle of less than 45 degrees with the surface of a piece of lumber.


A log, or part of a log, trimmed and prepared for conversion into veneers. After cutting, all bundles are laid together in sequence as they were sliced.


A tongued and grooved piece of lumber used in constructing a floor. The basic size of flooring is 1×4 inches although other sizes are used. Flooring is sold mostly in Superior and Prime grades, and is produced either as vertical grain or flat grain.

Free of Heart Center (FOHC)

Lumber sawn to exclude the pith or heart center of a log.

Grade Marked

Lumber or plywood that has been graded for quality and/or specific use and marked with certain symbols attesting to that quality. Such lumber is marked with a grading association or agency stamp.


The size and arrangement of the cells of the living tree. Woods fall into three groups: Fine grained (Birch, Cherry, Maple, etc.), medium grained (Walnut, Mahogany, etc.), and coarse grained (Oak, etc.). Coarser grained woods can usually be cut to develop a more conspicuous pattern.


Unseasoned; not dry. Lumber with a moisture content of 19% or more.

Half Round Slicing

Similar to rotary peeling, also producing a high veneer yield. Primarily used to add width to narrow stocks by increasing the plane of cut. Also used to enhance a particularly wild grain pattern. Matching is possible because the leaves can be kept in sequence. Half round cutting may be used to achieve “flat cut” veneer appearance.


General term used to designate lumber or veneer produced from broad-leafed or deciduous trees in contrast to softwood, which is produced from evergreens or coniferous trees.


The inner part of exogenous trees that normally does not contain living cells. That portion of the tree contained within the sapwood; this term is sometimes used to mean the pith. The heartwood is dormant and unnecessary for the trees continued life; the living part of the tree is contained in its outer parts. Also called true wood.


Shakes produced with a thickness of 3/4 to 5/4 inches at the butt.


Veneer strips are used and matched to both sides of the center line, at an angle. The resulting appearance is reminiscent of the bones of a fish as they are attached to the back bone.

Inconspicuous (Blending Pin Knot)

Sound knots 1/4 inch or less that do not contain dark centers. Inconspicuous or blending pin knots are hardly detectable at a distance of approximately 6′ and do not seriously detract from the overall appearance of the panel. These are permitted in all grades.

Kiln Dried

Lumber that has been seasoned in a kiln to a predetermined moisture content.


A branch or limb embedded in a tree and cut through in the process of manufacturing. Knots are classified according to size, quality and occurrence. In lumber, the size classifications are: Pin knot, one not over 1/2-inch in diameter; Small, a knot larger than 1/2-inch but not over 3/4-inch; Medium, larger than 3/4-inch but not over 1-1/2-inches; Large, over 1-1/2-inches in diameter.

Knot Occurrence

Knots are classified by the way they occur in a piece of lumber. Types of occurrences include: 1. Branch knots, two or more divergent knots sawed lengthwise and tapering toward the pith at a common point. 2. Corner knot, one located at the intersection of adjacent faces. 3. Cluster, two or more knots grouped together, the fibers of the wood being deflected around the entire unit. 4. Single knot, one occurring by itself, the fibers of the wood being deflected around it. 5. Spike, a knot sawed in a lengthwise direction.

Knot Quality

In addition to size, knots are classified according to quality. Classifications include: 1. Decayed, a knot softer than the surrounding wood, and containing advanced decay. 2. Encased, a knot whose rings of annual growth are not intergrown with those of the surrounding wood. 3. Intergrown, a knot partially or completely intergrown on one or two faces with the growth rings of the surrounding wood. 4. Loose, a knot not held tightly in place by growth or position, one that cannot be relied on to remain in place. 5. Fixed, a knot that will hold its place in a dry piece under ordinary conditions; one than can be moved under pressure but not easily pushed out of the surrounding wood. 6. Pith, a sound knot containing a pith hole not over 1/4-inch in diameter. 7. Sound, a knot that is solid across the face, as hard as the surrounding wood, and shows no indications of decay. 8. Star-checked, a knot having radial checks. 9. Tight, a knot fixed by growth or position so as to retain its place. 10. Firm, a knot that is solid across its face but contains incipient decay. 11. Watertight, a knot whose annual rings of growth are completely intergrown with those of the surrounding wood on one surface of the piece, and which is sound on the surface.

Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL)

Structural wood members constructed of veneers laminated to make a “flitch” from which pieces of specific sizes can be cut.


The process of gluing or bonding the component sections of the plywood into a single permanent unit stronger than the original wood itself.


A thin, narrow wooden strip, used as a backing for wall plaster or other materials, or as a fencing material.


A small, plain, S4S moulding originally used in trellis work.

Long Lengths

A loose term generally referring to boards or dimension lumber longer than the lengths that are common for the species or region. In the Inland West, long lengths are widely understood to be pieces 18 feet or longer. In other regions, the phrase refers usually to dimension 22 feet in length or longer.


The trunk of the tree is the part that begins just above the stump and continues to just below the crotch. Most veneers are cut from long wood by quarter, rotary, or flat cutting.

Matching of Burls, Crotches, & Stumps

These wood figures need special treatment when being matched into faces because of there generally exotic grains. Burls and crotches have a tendency to be buckled. When making a panel face it is usually necessary to flatten and patch the veneer. They also have a tendency to develop fine hairline splits, so must be carefully handled in manufacturing. This extra labor usually adds to the expense of using these grains, however the results are well worth the cost.


Shakes produced with a thickness of 1/2 to 3/4 inch.


Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL). High strength beams produced from stress graded veneers. Manufactured in 1-3/4″ thick billets with grain parallel to primary load axis. For high load, long span applications.

Moisture Content

The weight of the water in wood expressed as the percentage of the weight of the oven-dry wood.


A term applied to figured wood that gives the impression of an uneven surface, although smooth. Broken wavy patches across the face. Twisted interwoven grain with irregular cross figure, which is the mottle. The effect is due to reflected light on the uneven arrangement of the fibers. The value of cabinet wood is increased greatly when it is mottled.

Nominal Size

The size designation for most lumber, plywood, and other panel products, used for convenience. In lumber, the nominal size is usually greater than actual dimension; thus, a kiln dried 2×4 ordinarily is surfaced to 1-1/2×3-1/2. In panel products, the size is generally stated in feet for surface dimensions and increments of 1/16-inch for thickness. Product standards permit various tolerances for the latter, varying according to the type and nominal thickness of the panel.

Open Knots

Opening produced when a portion of the wood substance of a knot has dropped out, or where cross checks have occurred to produce an opening.

Overlaid Plywood

Plywood with a surfacing material added to one or both sides. The material usually provides a protective or decorative characteristic to the side, or a base for finishing. Materials used for overlays include resin-treated fiber, resin film, impregnated paper, plastics, and metal.


Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL). A composite wood product where veneers are clipped into 1″ strips and pressed together (all grain parallel) into a large billet. Billets are cut into different sizes for high strength beam and column applications. The attractive material may be left exposed. CCA treated PSL is also available for exterior use.

Particle Board

A panel composed of small particles of wood and wood fiber that are bonded together with synthetic resin adhesives in the presence of heat and pressure.


These are areas, or pockets, of disintegrated wood caused by localized decay, or wood areas with abrupt color change related to localized injury such as bird peck. Peck is sometimes considered as a decorative effect such as bird peck in pecan and hickory or pecks in cypress.

Pentachlorophenol (Penta)

A chemical used in wood preserving; it is usually applied under pressure so that it will penetrate the wood.

Pin Knot

A knot with a diameter no larger than 1/2 inch.


1. An accumulation of resin in the wood cells in a more or less irregular patch. Classified for grading purposes as light, medium, heavy, or massed. 2. The angle or inclination of a roof, which varies according to climate and roofing materials used. 3. The set, or projection, of teeth on alternate sides of a saw to provide clearance for its body.


A flat panel made up of a number of thin sheets, or veneers, of wood in which the grain direction of each ply, or layer, is at right angles to the one adjacent to it. The veneer sheets are united, under pressure, by a bonding agent.

Pressure Treating

A process of impregnating lumber or other wood products with various chemicals, such as preservatives and fire retardants, by forcing the chemicals into the structure of the wood using high pressure.

Quarter Slicing

This cut requires the larges diameter logs and produces straight grained veneers. The quarter slicing of oak can result in the appearance of flake.


Lumber sawn so that the annual rings form angles of 45 to 90 degrees with the surface of the piece.


A rectangular cut in which two surfaces are cut on the edge of a member, parallel with the grain. Also, a Rebate.

Random Lengths (RL)

1. Lumber of various lengths, usually in even two-foot increments. Lumber offered as random length will contain a variety of lengths which can vary greatly between manufacturers and species. A random length loading is presumed to contain a fair representation of the lengths being produced by a specific manufacturer. 2. A service that regularly publishes information about wood products markets.

Random Width (RW)

Wood products of various widths. 1. Veneer clipped in various nonstandard widths, usually less than two feet wide. 2. Shingles or shakes that are manufactured and sold in various widths within a certain length, thickness, and grade. 3. Lumber, usually for factory or industrial uses, that is sold in random widths.


Sequoia sempervirens. This species is found only in limited areas of Northern California and Southern Oregon. It is resistant to decay and is used for many of the same purposes as Cedar, especially siding and paneling. Another species of Redwood, Sequoia gigantea, grows in the Sierra Mountains of Central California. It is protected from harvest.

Reverse Board & Batten

This is usually done with straight grain veneer. A rectangle is divided into 4 quadrants. The grain direction is from the center point to the outside edge in each of the quadrants. The resulting appearance is that of a series of “V’s” formed by the grain match at the joint line pointed in at the center point.

Reversed Diamond

This is usually done with straight grain veneer. A rectangle is divided into 4 quadrants. The grain direction is from the center point to the outside edge in each of the quadrants. The resulting appearance is that of a series of “V’s” formed by the grain match at the joint line pointed in at the center point.

Ribbon Stripe

The appearance is between broken stripe and plain stripe as a result of quarter slicing a log. It gives the general appearance of a ribbon sometimes slightly twisted.

Rift Cut

This method is commonly used for Oak, and it can only be used on sizable logs. Produced by cutting at a slight angle to the radial to produce a quartered appearance without excessive flake. Rift cut veneer can easily be sequenced and matched.


To saw a piece of lumber along its longitudinal axis.


This results when the twist in the grain of broken stripe is all in once direction.

Rotary Peeling

The log is turned in a circular motion against a knife peeling off a continuous thin sheet of wood veneer. This is the most economical method of producing veneer, resulting in the highest yield. The grain is inconsistent and leaves are most difficult to match. This type of veneer is best suited for paint grade or utility surfaces.

Rough Cut

Irregular shaped areas of generally uneven corrugation on the surface of veneer, differing from the surrounding smooth veneer and occurring as the veneer is cut by the lathe or slicer.

Running Match

The panel face is made from components running through the flitch consecutively. Any portion of a component left over from a face is used as the beginning component or leaf in starting the next panel.


Surfaced one side and two edges.


Surfaced four sides.


The outer layers of growth between the bark and the heartwood which contain the sap. As additional layers of growth accumulate on the outer perimeter, the inner layers of the sapwood become heartwood. Sap is lighter in color and the differentiation in color and thickness of the sap layer varies considerably by species.

Saw Textured

A texture put on a piece of siding or paneling by a saw or knurled drum to give it a textured, rough and/or resawn appearance.

Select Structural

The highest grade of Structural Joists and Planks. This grade is applied to lumber of high quality in terms of appearance, strength, and stiffness.

Select Tight Knot (STK)

A grade term frequently used for cedar lumber. Lumber designated STK is selected from mill run for the tight knots in each piece, as differentiated from lumber which may contain loose knots or knotholes.


1. A lengthwise grain separation between growth rings, or a break through the rings (radial shake), usually the result of high winds. Among the recognized types and degrees of shakes are: fine, slight, medium, open, cup, round, ring, shell, through, and pith. 2. Roofing material produced from wood (most often a cedar). Shakes have at least one surface with a natural grain-textured split surface.


Plywood, waferboard, oriented strand board, or lumber used to close up side walls, floors, or roofs preparatory to the installation of finish materials on the surface. The sheathing grades are also commonly used for pallets, crates, and certain industrial products.


1. A long, narrow repair of wood or suitable synthetic not more than 3/16-inch wide, used in replacing defects in plywood. 2. A piece of shingle or other small piece used as a wedge in construction.


1. Lumber that has been worked to make a rabbeted joint on each edge so that pieces may be fitted together snugly for increased strength and stability. 2. A similiar pattern cut into plywood or other wood panels used as siding to assure a tight joint.


Veneer produced by thrusting a log or sawn flitch into a slicing machine which shears off the veneer in sheets.

Slip Matching

Veneer leaves in a flitch are “slipped”. Successive veneer leaves in a flitch are “slipped” one alongside the other and edge-glued in this manner. The result is a series of grain repeats, but no pairs. Sometimes a grain pattern “runs off” the edge of the leaf because the grain patterns are rarely perfectly straight. A series of leaves with this condition could make a panel look as though it is “leaning”. In book matching the pairs balance each other.


Lumber or veneer produced from needle and/or cone bearing trees.

Solid Core

1. The inner layer of a plywood panel which contain no open irregularities such as gaps or open knotholes, and whose grain runs perpendicular to the outer plies. Primarily used as underlayment for resilient floor covering. 2. A flush door containing particleboard or wood blocks to completely fill the area between the door skins; used in entries and as fire-resistant doors.

Solid Moulding

A moulding produced from a single piece of wood, as distinguished from finger-jointed mouldings which are produced from two or more pieces of wood jointed together end to end.

Sound, Tight Knots

Knots that are solid across their face and fixed by growth to retain their place.

Southern Yellow Pine

A species group, composed primarily of Loblolly, Longleaf, Shortleaf, and Slash Pines. Various subspecies also are included in the group.


A distinct kind of wood.

Spliced Face Veneers

Face veneers that have been joined together in any one of several matching effects through the careful factory process of tape less splicing.


Separations of wood fiber running parallel to the grain.

Spruce-Pine-Fir (SPF)

Canadian woods of similiar characteristics that have been grouped for production and marketing. The SPF species have moderate strength, are worked easily, take paint readily, and hold nails well. They are white to pale yellow in color. The largest volume comes from Western Canada (British Columbia and Alberta) where the principal species in the group are: White Spruce, Engelmann Spruce, Lodgepole Pine, and Alpine Fir. The principal species in the group originating in Eastern Canada are: Red Spruce, Black Spruce, Jack Pine, and Balsam Fir. Some lumber production in the New England states also is marketed as Spruce-Pine-Fir and includes those species.

Streaks (Mineral)

Natural discolorations of the wood substance.

Stump Veneer

This veneer is produced from the base of the tree. The grain pattern is always swirly twisted and often accompanied by cross fire and patches of burl. The sizes are normally small.


A trade name registered by the American Plywood Association for a panel designed specifically for use as combined subfloor/underlayment in residential floor applications. It is available in several thicknesses, each keyed to a recommended spacing of floor joists from 16 to 48 inches.

Texture 1-11

A registered trade name of the American Plywood Association for siding panels with special surface treatment (such as saw textured), and having grooves spaced regularly across the face.

Tight Side

A term applied to the concave side of knife-cut veneer which is in compression. The back or convex side often has slight ruptures and is called the loose side. The face of rotary cut veneers.

Tongue and Groove

Lumber machined to have a groove on one side and a protruding tongue on the other, so that pieces will fit snugly together, with the tongue of one fitting into the groove of the other.


A distortion in wood caused by the turning or winding of the edges of a board so that the four corners of any face are no longer in the same plane.


Low grade (usually #4) shingles used as the initial layer of material on a double-coursed sidewall of a building.


Any of several longitudinal cuts made on the faces of pieces of lumber or plywood. The face veneer of plywood paneling is V-grooved to relieve the flat appearance of the surface; the grooving usually creates a pattern resembling random width boards placed side by side. Usually, V grooves in paneling are stained darker than the surface. In lumber, edges are sometimes chamfered to create a V where pieces are placed edge to edge. A V may also be machined the length of the piece to provide decoration. A V pattern also may be used to form tongue and groove connections on either lumber or plywood.

Vapor Barrier

Material placed on the warm side of a wall to prevent the movement of vapor through the wall. A plastic or paper sheet, or paint.


A thin sheet of wood, rotary cut, sliced, or sawn from a log or flitch. Veneering goes back to the early days of the Egyptians, which would be approximately 3,500 years ago. Down through the years and cultures veneering has enriched furniture and architectural interiors with sheets of rare and beautiful woods bonded to other plain, sturdy wood based sub straights to form a panel.

Vertical Grain (VG)

Lumber that is sawn at approximately right angles to the annual growth rings so that the rings form an angle of 45 degrees or more with the surface of the piece.


A lower interior wall surface (usually extending three to four feet up from the floor) that contrasts with the wall surface above it; an interior wall composed of two different interior wall surfaces, one above the other.


Bark, or the lack of wood from any cause, on the edge or corner of a piece of lumber. In plywood, thin to open areas in veneer sheets that result from outer log surface irregularities.


Any variation from a true or plane surface, including bow, crook, cup, or any combination of these.

Western Red Cedar

Thuja plicata. This species is found principally along the western edges of British Columbia, Washington and Oregon. The wood is soft, straight-grained, and extremely resistant to decay and insect damage. It is used extensively in roof coverings, exterior sidings, fences, decks, and other outdoor applications.

Worm Holes

Holes resulting from infestation of worms.

Z Flashing

Z-shaped metal flashing applied between panels of plywood siding to shed water.

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